Encouraged by his wife Chadidscha, Mohammed soon started to announce the revelations of the archangel Gabriel in Mecca.
He was soon to find disciples there. But as Mohammed condemned idolatry which was common amongst traders, he was forced to flee to the city of Medina which was 35O kms away. This happened in the year A. In Medina, Mohammed was soon accepted as a political and religious leader. The date of migration, July the 16th, A. The disciples Mohammed found in Medina, organised themselves into a military group which marched back into Mecca with Mohammed.
In A. Mohammed finally entered Mecca triumphantly after a short battle. He destroyed the idols, but pronounced the Kaaba, which according to heathen legends fell from the heavens as a black meteorite, as his main relic.
Mohammed increasingly developed from being just a prophet to a general and politician. Mohammed died in A. There was heavy fighting for his succession. The Kalif Abu Bekr became the victor of this struggle. From this time, Mohammed's successors have been called Kalifs Arabic for successor. The demands Mohammed put to the people were minimal.
Every Muslim the followers of Islam has to keep to the most important ones:. In addition to these, there are some complementary demands in the Koran e. The fasting in the month of Ramadan lasts from dawn until dusk. The law of Islam depends principally on the Koran. The holy book of Islam is the Koran, which the believing Muslim reads only in the Arabic language.W hat bleeds India today is a profound historical error. The error lies in our understanding of state and religion — both as political concepts and as historical entities.
We have borrowed these terms from western European history and applied them unthinkingly to ourselves, without acknowledging that what we today recognise as state and religion actually evolved very differently in India.
Another text was far more popular globally. We have inherited the term religion from the Judeo-Christian tradition and applied it indiscriminately to different Indian philosophies, myths, rituals, and practices.
But there is really no one term for religion in India. There never has been. It simply means duty. Next to dharma was karmasacred activities like sacrifice, worship and pilgrimage, which varied greatly across regions and communities.
This was the realm of popular spirituality that often emerged in either indifference to or defiance of the dominant order of things. Many of these communities were about alternative social imaginaries, which innovated upon caste and gender norms and rules of living and eating together, and were often looked down upon by dominant social groups, be it Brahmins or Ashrafs.
Some of these philosophies talked about a god or a deity, others did not. None of these had scriptures. In fact, they were all concerned about philosophical and logical insights into whether the world was real or unreal, changeful or immutable. And above all, none of these had any conception of a political establishment like the church, meant to shore up their respective schools of thought. Hinduism is really a modern-day invention by colonial powers, who mapped the world in terms of unities like Hinduism IndiaIslam Middle East and Confucianism Chinaeach constructed in the mirror image of Christianity.
We seemed to have bought into this false map of the world and in the name of national identity, drained ourselves of the rich diversity of alternative world-views and forms of sociability that we possessed historically. We also emptied our traditions of philosophical significance and killed our spiritual creativity.
In Europe, the modern absolutist state acquired its monopoly of violence by usurping political power from its biggest rival, the Church, which too had its own armies and own police recall the Inquisition and the Crusades. Mark the contrast with Indian history. Kings destroyed the royal temples of rival kings, only to set up new royal places of worship. The author is a historian and professor at Centre for Study of Developing Societies.
Views are personal. ThePrint is now on Telegram. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. This is a new game. Half baked truth is covered with sweet lies! The author succumbed to what she was complaining about in the 2nd half of article. And those like Dara Siko who translated and promoted Hindu scriptures were beheaded!The wheel Skt. The Buddha was the one who "turned the wheel of the dharma" and thus the wheel symbol is the Dharmachakra, or "wheel of law.
The wheel's motion is a metaphor for the rapid spiritual change engendered by the teachings of the Buddha: the Buddha's first discourse at the Deer Park in Sarnath is known as the "first turning of the wheel of dharma.
His subsequent discourses at Rajgir and Shravasti are known as the "second and third turnings of the wheel of dharma. The wheel also represents the endless cycle of samsara, or rebirth, which can only be escaped by means of the Buddha's teachings. Some Buddhists regard the the wheel's three basic parts as symbols of the "three trainings" in Buddhist practice:. The wheel was a common symbol in early Buddhist art, before the introduction of Buddha images.
In those days, the Dharmachakra symbolized not only the Buddha's teachings but the Buddha himself. On the tops of the pillars built by Emperor Ashoka BCfour carved lions and four wheels face the four directions to proclaim the Buddhist Dharma throughout India. Today, the Dharmachakra appears in the art of every Buddhist culture. On images of the Buddha, the wheel appears on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet, where it is one of the 32 Marks of a Great Man.
It is especially prominent in Tibet, where it is one of the Eight Auspicious Symbols and often flanked by two deer — the whole image representing the Buddha's first sermon in the Deer Park. The wheel is usually central to mandalas, geometric representations of the Buddhist universe. It also appears in the Dharmachakra Mudra, in which the Buddha forms a wheel with the position of his hands. Some Tibetan wrathful deities are depicted brandishing a wheel as a weapon to conquer evil and ignorance.
This theme may have been adapted from Hindu iconography, in which a disc is an attribute of the god Vishnu and a symbol of the absolute weapon that conquers desires and passions. Wikimedia Commons. The Wheel of Dharma, without the unauthentic ship's wheel style handles.
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Turning the Wheel of Dharma The Buddha was the one who "turned the wheel of the dharma" and thus the wheel symbol is the Dharmachakra, or "wheel of law.
Difference Between Islam and Buddhism
Some Buddhists regard the the wheel's three basic parts as symbols of the "three trainings" in Buddhist practice: The hub symbolizes moral discipline, which stabilizes the mind.
The spokes usually there are eight represent wisdom which is applied to defeat ignorance.He gave his first sermon on the outskirts of the city of Varanasi at a deer park called Sarnath.
This first sermon presents an overview of suffering and the way out of suffering. First, there is the ordinary suffering of mental and physical pain. Second, there is the suffering produced by change, the simple fact that all things—including happy feelings and blissful states—are impermanent, as is life itself. To develop this freedom one must practice habits of ethical conduct, thought, and meditation that enable one to move along the path. These habits include:. Skip to main content.
Main Menu Utility Menu Search. Suffering is caused by desire and grasping. There is a way out of suffering. These habits include: Right understanding. Really knowing, for example, that unwholesome acts and thoughts have consequences, as do wholesome acts and thoughts. Right intention. Recognizing that actions are shaped by habits of anger and self-centeredness, or by habits of compassion, understanding, and love.
Right speech. Recognizing the moral implications of speech. Right action. Observing the five precepts at the foundation of all morality: not killing, not stealing, not engaging in sexual misconduct, not lying, and not clouding the mind with intoxicants. Right livelihood. Earning a living in ways that are consonant with the basic precepts.
Right effort.Islam vs Buddhism. When it comes to some of the major religions in the world, a lot of people are skeptical, or even fearful of something that they do not know a lot about. Here, we will try to do away with some of the most common misconceptions regarding the two most common religions in the world: Islam and Buddhism. A Muslim, therefore, is someone who submits himself to God.
Arab countries and those in the Indian sub-continent also have a high percentage of Muslims. What about Buddhism? More than being a religion, Buddhism is a philosophy which encompasses a variety of traditions, practices and beliefs. Buddhism is a widely-practiced religion in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. Buddhism only introduced the concept of God in the later doctrines, while Muslims believe in a God known as Allah.
Islam is focused on the Five Pillars of Islam, while Buddhism has two major branches which include the Theravada and Mahayana. Islam is a religion which considers Allah to be God, while Buddhism only introduced the concept of God in their later doctrines. Cite Noa A. May 19, After living few years in Europe,where I studied Buddhism Philosophy.
I love to be a Buddhist. Where the Iraq accept just religions, where God concept exist. Through my experience, Iraq and all Islamic Arabic countries refusing the Buddhism concept believe. I suffered from discrimination inside Iraq. In psychological way. The reason that Iraq cannot accept Buddhism are many. Sura 4. Peace between Muslims and the rest of the world is never a genuine peace. So take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of Allah from what is forbidden.
But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them where ever you find them; and in any case take no friends from their ranks. But never turn your back to him. Sura 9. And He did. This Bible prophecy is short and to the point. It accurately describes the people of the Middle East. This book, however, is strongly biased in favor of the Koran and Islam. Watching TV interviews with various experts on Islam, one gets the feeling that there is an effort in this nation, if not to win converts to Islam, then at least to portray that religion as superior to Christianity.
Young people are being targeted. In one school in California, children must wear Islamic clothing, recite the Koran, and pray in the Islamic fashion. This is a dangerous trend. If Abraham knew that he is being credited with fathering Islam, he would be turning over in his grave. Some of the leaders of institutions in this country have no idea what deadly seed they are planting in the minds of the young and the more unwary.
Apparently, this Arabian camel driver, an employee of his wife she owned a trucking company of that vintage — a fleet of camelshad ambitions to be a prophet, and a great prophet at that. In fact, he wanted to be the greatest prophet that ever lived, or that ever will live. He wanted to be even greater than Jesus Christ. That presented a serious problem, but it was a problem which he solved in his own way.Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharmaor way of life, [note 1] widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia.
Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmologyshared textual resourcesand pilgrimage to sacred sites. These texts discuss theology, philosophymythologyVedic yajnaYogaagamic ritualsand temple buildingamong other topics. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa monastic practices to achieve Moksha.
Hinduism is the world's third largest religion ; its followers, known as Hindusconstitute about 1. It is also the predominant religion in BaliIndonesia. The use of the English term "Hinduism" to describe a collection of practices and beliefs is a recent construction: it was first used by Raja Ram Mohun Roy in — Before the British began to categorise communities strictly by religion, Indians generally did not define themselves exclusively through their religious beliefs; identities were segmented on the basis of locality, language, caste, occupation and sect.
The word "Hindu" is much older, and it is believed that it was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent.
Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta — equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhuwhile hndstn pronounced Hindustan is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of Indiameaning the "land of Hindus".
The term Hindu was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir Hinduka, c. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas foreigners or Mlecchas barbarianswith the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase " Hindu dharma ".
The term Hinduismthen spelled Hindooismwas introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet s nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheisticpantheisticpanentheisticpandeistichenotheisticmonotheisticmonisticagnosticatheistic or humanist.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. In India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the Western term religion.
The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents.
Of the historical division into six darsanas philosophiestwo schools, Vedanta and Yogaare currently the most prominent. McDaniel classifies Hinduism into six major kinds and numerous minor kinds, in order to understand expression of emotions among the Hindus. Michaels distinguishes three Hindu religions and four forms of Hindu religiosity. He classifies most Hindus as belonging by choice to one of the "founded religions" such as Vaishnavism and Shaivism that are salvation-focussed and often de-emphasize Brahman priestly authority yet incorporate ritual grammar of Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism.
Inden states that the attempt to classify Hinduism by typology started in the imperial times, when proselytizing missionaries and colonial officials sought to understand and portray Hinduism from their interests. This stereotype followed and fit, states Inden, with the imperial imperatives of the era, providing the moral justification for the colonial project.
The early reports set the tradition and scholarly premises for typology of Hinduism, as well as the major assumptions and flawed presuppositions that has been at the foundation of Indology.
Hinduism, according to Inden, has been neither what imperial religionists stereotyped it to be, nor is it appropriate to equate Hinduism to be merely monist pantheism and philosophical idealism of Advaita Vedanta.
To its adherents, Hinduism is a traditional way of life. All aspects of a Hindu life, namely acquiring wealth arthafulfillment of desires kamaand attaining liberation mokshaare part of dharma, which encapsulates the "right way of living" and eternal harmonious principles in their fulfillment. Sanatana dharma has become a synonym for the "eternal" truth and teachings of Hinduism, that transcend history and are "unchanging, indivisible and ultimately nonsectarian".
It is viewed as those eternal truths and tradition with origins beyond human history, truths divinely revealed Shruti in the Vedas — the most ancient of the world's scriptures.Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including AdamAbrahamMoses and Jesus. Aside from the theological narrative,    Islam is historically believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca,  and by the 8th century the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east.
The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphatewhen much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientificeconomic and cultural flourishing. Muslimthe word applied to an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter to God" or "one who surrenders to God".
The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam. Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Faith Iman in the Islamic creed Aqidah is often represented as the six articles of faithnotably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is often seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to think of him as having a human form.
India was a land of dharma but Europeans reduced it to Hinduism, Islam. And we accepted it
Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, " Be, and it is "  and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
Belief in angels is fundamental to Islam. Unlike their Hebrew counterpart, the term is exclusively used for heavenly spirits of the divine world, but not for human messengers. The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as "rasul" instead.
The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels. In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomenon. In Islam, just like in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles. The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat Torah and the Injil Gospelhad become distorted —either in interpretation, in text, or both.
The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Meccaare primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community. The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values". The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir. Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran.
Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim.
The Dharma: The Teachings of the Buddha
Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Quran mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islamincluding AdamNoahAbrahamMoses and Jesusamong others. Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law-bearing prophet Seal of the prophets to convey the divine message to the whole world to sum up and to finalize the word of God. In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah literally "trodden path".
Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God quoted by Muhammad but is not part of the Quran. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanadand the actual wording, called matn. Muhammad al-Bukhari  collected overhadith, but only included 2, distinct hadith that passed veracity tests that codified them as authentic into his book Sahih al-Bukhari which is considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran.
The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrectiona break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. Good deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals,   will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God. Everything, good and bad, is believed to have been decreed. There are five basic religious acts in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' arkan al-Islam ; also arkan ad-din"pillars of religion"which are considered obligatory for all believers.